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T12n0374_018 大般涅槃經 第18卷

CBETA 電子佛典集成 » 大正藏 (T) » 第 12 冊 » No.0374 » 第 18 卷 ▲上一卷 ▼下一卷 前往第

 
T12n0374_p0468a07║
T12n0374_p0468a08║大般涅槃經卷第十八
T12n0374_p0468a09║
T12n0374_p0468a10║
T12n0374_p0468a11║梵行品第八之四

T12n0374_p0468a12║「◎復次善男子!云何復名一切世間所不知
T12n0374_p0468a13║見覺,而是菩薩所知見覺?所謂六念處。何等
T12n0374_p0468a14║為六?念佛、念法、念僧、念戒、念施、念天。善男子!
T12n0374_p0468a15║云何念佛?如來、應、正遍知、明行足、善逝、世間
T12n0374_p0468a16║解、無上士、調御丈夫、天人師、佛、世尊,常不變
T12n0374_p0468a17║易,具足十力、四無所畏、大師子吼,名大沙門、
T12n0374_p0468a18║大婆羅門、大淨畢竟到於彼岸、無能勝者、無
T12n0374_p0468a19║見頂者、無有怖畏不驚不動、獨一無侶、無師
T12n0374_p0468a20║自悟、疾智、大智、利智、深智、解脫智、不共智、廣
T12n0374_p0468a21║普智、畢竟智、智寶成就、人中象王、人中牛王、
T12n0374_p0468a22║人中龍王、人中丈夫、人中蓮花、分陀利花、調
T12n0374_p0468a23║御人師、為大施主大法之師,以知法故名大
T12n0374_p0468a24║法師,以知義故名大法師,以知時故名大法
T12n0374_p0468a25║師,以知足故名大法師,以知我故名大法師,
T12n0374_p0468a26║知大眾故名大法師,以知眾生種種性故名
T12n0374_p0468a27║大法師,以知諸根利鈍中故名大法師,說中
T12n0374_p0468a28║道故名大法師。
T12n0374_p0468a29║「云何名如來?如過去諸佛所說不變。云何不
T12n0374_p0468b01║變?過去諸佛,為度眾生說十二部經,如來亦
T12n0374_p0468b02║爾,故名如來。諸佛世尊從六波羅蜜、三十七
T12n0374_p0468b03║品、十一空來至大涅槃,如來亦爾,是故號佛
T12n0374_p0468b04║為如來也。諸佛世尊為眾生故,隨宜方便開
T12n0374_p0468b05║示三乘,壽命無量不可稱計,如來亦爾,是故
T12n0374_p0468b06║號佛為如來也。
T12n0374_p0468b07║「云何為應?世間之法悉名怨家,佛應害故,故
T12n0374_p0468b08║名為應。夫四魔者是菩薩怨,諸佛如來為菩
T12n0374_p0468b09║薩時,能以智慧破壞四魔,是故名應。復次
T12n0374_p0468b10║應者名為遠離,為菩薩時,應當遠離無量煩
T12n0374_p0468b11║惱,故名為應。復次應者名樂,過去諸佛為菩
T12n0374_p0468b12║薩時,雖於無量阿僧祇劫為眾生故受諸苦
T12n0374_p0468b13║惱,終無不樂,而常樂之,如來亦爾,是故名應。
T12n0374_p0468b14║又復應者,一切人天,應以種種香花、瓔珞、幢幡、
T12n0374_p0468b15║樂而供養之,是故名應。
T12n0374_p0468b16║「云何正遍知?正者名不顛倒,遍知者於四顛
T12n0374_p0468b17║倒無不通達。又復正者名為苦行,遍知者,
T12n0374_p0468b18║知因苦行,定有苦果。又復正者名世間中,遍
T12n0374_p0468b19║知者畢竟定知,修習中道得阿耨多羅三藐三
T12n0374_p0468b20║菩提。又復正者,名為可數、可量、可稱,遍知
T12n0374_p0468b21║者,不可數、不可量、不可稱,是故號佛為正遍
T12n0374_p0468b22║知。善男子!聲聞緣覺亦有遍知、亦不遍知。
T12n0374_p0468b23║何以故?遍知者,名五陰、十二入、十八界,聲聞
T12n0374_p0468b24║緣覺亦得遍知,是名遍知。云何不遍知?善男
T12n0374_p0468b25║子!假使二乘於無量劫,觀一色陰,不能盡知,
T12n0374_p0468b26║以是義故,聲聞緣覺無有遍知。
T12n0374_p0468b27║「云何明行足?明者名得無量善果,行名脚足,
T12n0374_p0468b28║善果者名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。脚足者名
T12n0374_p0468b29║為戒、慧,乘戒慧足,得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,
T12n0374_p0468c01║是故名為明行足也。又復明者名呪,行者名
T12n0374_p0468c02║吉,足者名果,善男子!是名世間義;呪者名
T12n0374_p0468c03║為解脫,吉者名為阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,果
T12n0374_p0468c04║者名為大般涅槃,是故名為明行足也。又復
T12n0374_p0468c05║明者名光,行者名業,足者名果,善男子!是
T12n0374_p0468c06║名世間義;光者名不放逸,業者名六波羅蜜,
T12n0374_p0468c07║果者名為阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。又復明者
T12n0374_p0468c08║名為三明:一菩薩明,二諸佛明,三無明明;
T12n0374_p0468c09║菩薩明者即是般若波羅蜜,諸佛明者即是
T12n0374_p0468c10║佛眼,無明明者即畢竟空,行者於無量劫為
T12n0374_p0468c11║眾生故修諸善業,足者明見佛性,以是義故
T12n0374_p0468c12║名明行足。 「云何善逝?善者名高,逝名不高,
T12n0374_p0468c13║善男子!是名世間義;高者名為阿耨多羅三
T12n0374_p0468c14║藐三菩提,不高者即如來心也。善男子!心
T12n0374_p0468c15║若高者不名如來,是故如來名為善逝。又復
T12n0374_p0468c16║善者名為善知識,逝者善知識果,善男子!是
T12n0374_p0468c17║名世間義;善知識者即初發心,果者名為大
T12n0374_p0468c18║般涅槃,如來不捨最初發心得大涅槃,是故
T12n0374_p0468c19║如來名為善逝。又復善者名好,逝者名有,善
T12n0374_p0468c20║男子!是名世間義;好者名見佛性,有者名
T12n0374_p0468c21║大涅槃。善男子!涅槃之性實非有也,諸佛
T12n0374_p0468c22║世尊因世間故,說言是有。善男子!譬如世人,
T12n0374_p0468c23║實無有子說言有子,實無有道說言有道,涅
T12n0374_p0468c24║槃亦爾,因世間故說言為有,諸佛世尊成大
T12n0374_p0468c25║涅槃,故名善逝。◎
T12n0374_p0468c26║「◎善男子!云何世間解?善男子!世間者名
T12n0374_p0468c27║為五陰,解者名知,諸佛世尊善知五陰,故名
T12n0374_p0468c28║世間解。又世間者名為五欲,解名不著,不
T12n0374_p0468c29║著五欲故,名世間解。又世間解者,東方無量
T12n0374_p0469a01║阿僧祇世界,一切聲聞緣覺不知、不見、不解,諸
T12n0374_p0469a02║佛悉知、悉見、悉解,南西北方、四維上下,亦復如
T12n0374_p0469a03║是,是故號佛為世間解。又世間者一切凡夫,
T12n0374_p0469a04║解者知諸凡夫善惡因果,非是聲聞緣覺所
T12n0374_p0469a05║知,惟佛能知,是故號佛為世間解。又世間
T12n0374_p0469a06║者名曰蓮花,解名不污,善男子!是名世間
T12n0374_p0469a07║義;蓮花者即是如來,不污者,如來不為世間
T12n0374_p0469a08║八法之所染污,是故號佛為世間解。又世間
T12n0374_p0469a09║解者,諸佛菩薩名世間解。何以故?諸佛菩薩
T12n0374_p0469a10║見世間故,故名世間解。善男子!如因食得命,
T12n0374_p0469a11║名食為命;諸佛菩薩亦復如是,見世間故,故
T12n0374_p0469a12║名世間解。 「云何無上士?上士者名之為斷,無
T12n0374_p0469a13║所斷者,名無上士,諸佛世尊無有煩惱,故無
T12n0374_p0469a14║所斷,是故號佛為無上士。又上士者名為諍
T12n0374_p0469a15║訟,無上士者無有諍訟,如來無諍,是故號佛
T12n0374_p0469a16║為無上士。又上士者名語可壞,無上士者語
T12n0374_p0469a17║不可壞,如來所言,一切眾生所不能壞,是
T12n0374_p0469a18║故號佛為無上士。又上士者名為上座,無上
T12n0374_p0469a19║士者名無上座,三世諸佛更無過者,是故號
T12n0374_p0469a20║佛為無上士。上者名新,士者名故,諸佛世
T12n0374_p0469a21║尊體大涅槃,無新無故,是故號佛為無上士。
T12n0374_p0469a22║「云何調御丈夫?自既丈夫,復調丈夫。善男子!
T12n0374_p0469a23║言如來者,實非丈夫、非不丈夫,因調丈夫,故
T12n0374_p0469a24║名如來為丈夫也。善男子!一切男女,若具四
T12n0374_p0469a25║法,則名丈夫。何等為四?一善知識,二能聽
T12n0374_p0469a26║法,三思惟義,四如說修行。善男子!若男若
T12n0374_p0469a27║女具是四法,則名丈夫。善男子!若有男子,無
T12n0374_p0469a28║此四法,則不得名為丈夫也,何以故?身雖丈
T12n0374_p0469a29║夫,行同畜生。如來調伏若男若女,是故號佛
T12n0374_p0469b01║調御丈夫。復次善男子!如御馬者,凡有四
T12n0374_p0469b02║種:一者觸毛,二者觸皮,三者觸肉,四者觸
T12n0374_p0469b03║骨,隨其所觸,稱御者意。如來亦爾,以四種
T12n0374_p0469b04║法,調伏眾生:一為說生,令受佛語,如觸其毛,
T12n0374_p0469b05║隨御者意。二說生老,便受佛語,如觸毛皮,
T12n0374_p0469b06║隨御者意。三者說生及以老病,便受佛語,如
T12n0374_p0469b07║觸毛皮肉,隨御者意。四者說生及老病死,便
T12n0374_p0469b08║受佛語,如觸毛皮肉骨,隨御者意。善男子!
T12n0374_p0469b09║御者調馬,無有決定,如來世尊調伏眾生,必
T12n0374_p0469b10║定不虛,是故號佛為調御丈夫。 「云何天人
T12n0374_p0469b11║師?師有二種:一者善教,二者惡教。諸佛菩
T12n0374_p0469b12║薩常以善法教諸眾生。何等善法?謂身、口、
T12n0374_p0469b13║意善。諸佛菩薩教諸眾生,作如是言:『善男子,
T12n0374_p0469b14║汝當遠離身不善業。何以故?以身惡業,是可
T12n0374_p0469b15║遠離,得解脫故,是故我以此法教汝。若是惡
T12n0374_p0469b16║業不可遠離,得解脫者,終不教汝令遠離也。
T12n0374_p0469b17║若諸眾生離惡業已,墮三惡者無有是處,以
T12n0374_p0469b18║遠離故,成阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,得大涅槃。』
T12n0374_p0469b19║是故諸佛菩薩常以此法教化眾生,口、意亦
T12n0374_p0469b20║爾,是故號佛為無上師。復次昔未得道,今已
T12n0374_p0469b21║得之,以所得道,為眾生說;從本已來未修
T12n0374_p0469b22║梵行,今已修竟,以己所修,為眾生說;自破無
T12n0374_p0469b23║明,復為眾生破壞無明;自得淨目,復為眾生
T12n0374_p0469b24║破除盲冥,令得淨眼;自知二諦,復為眾生演
T12n0374_p0469b25║說二諦。既自解脫,復為眾生說解脫法;自度
T12n0374_p0469b26║無邊生死大河,復令眾生皆悉得度;自得無
T12n0374_p0469b27║畏,復教眾生令無怖畏;自既涅槃,復為眾生
T12n0374_p0469b28║演大涅槃;是故號佛為無上師。天者名晝,天
T12n0374_p0469b29║上晝長夜短,是故名天。又復天者名無愁惱,
T12n0374_p0469c01║常受快樂是故名天。又復天者名為燈明,能
T12n0374_p0469c02║破黑闇而為大明,是故名天。亦以能破惡業
T12n0374_p0469c03║黑闇,得於善業,而生天上,是故名天。又復天
T12n0374_p0469c04║者名吉,以吉祥故,得名為天。又復天者名曰
T12n0374_p0469c05║日,有光明故,名曰為天。以是義故,名為天也。
T12n0374_p0469c06║人者名曰能多恩義,又復人者身口柔軟,
T12n0374_p0469c07║又復人者名有憍慢,又復人者能破憍慢。
T12n0374_p0469c08║善男子!諸佛雖為一切眾生無上大師,然經
T12n0374_p0469c09║中說為天人師。何以故?善男子!諸眾生中
T12n0374_p0469c10║惟天與人,能發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,能
T12n0374_p0469c11║修十善業道,能得須陀洹果、斯陀含果、阿那
T12n0374_p0469c12║含果、阿羅漢果、辟支佛道、得阿耨多羅三藐
T12n0374_p0469c13║三菩提,是故號佛為天人師。 「云何為佛?佛
T12n0374_p0469c14║者名覺,既自覺悟,復能覺他。善男子!譬如
T12n0374_p0469c15║有人,覺知有賊,賊無能為。菩薩摩訶薩能覺
T12n0374_p0469c16║一切無量煩惱,既覺了已,令諸煩惱無所能
T12n0374_p0469c17║為,是故名佛。以是覺故,不生、不老、不病、不死,
T12n0374_p0469c18║是故名佛。 「婆伽婆者,婆伽名破,婆名煩惱,能
T12n0374_p0469c19║破煩惱故,名婆伽婆。又能成就諸善法故,又
T12n0374_p0469c20║能善解諸法義故,有大功德無能勝故,有大
T12n0374_p0469c21║名聞遍十方故,又能種種大慧施故,又於
T12n0374_p0469c22║無量阿僧祇劫吐女根故。 「善男子!若男、若
T12n0374_p0469c23║女,能如是念佛者,若行、若住、若坐、若臥、若晝、
T12n0374_p0469c24║若夜、若明、若闇,常得不離見佛世尊。 「善男子!
T12n0374_p0469c25║何故名為如來、應、正遍知乃至婆伽婆,而有
T12n0374_p0469c26║如是無量功德大名稱耶?善男子!菩薩摩訶
T12n0374_p0469c27║薩於昔無量阿僧祇劫,恭敬父母、和上、諸師、
T12n0374_p0469c28║上座、長老,於無量劫常為眾生而行布施,堅
T12n0374_p0469c29║持禁戒,修集忍辱,勤行精進、禪定、智慧,大慈、
T12n0374_p0470a01║大悲、大喜、大捨,是故今得三十二相、八十種
T12n0374_p0470a02║好、金剛之身。又復菩薩於昔無量阿僧祇劫,
T12n0374_p0470a03║修集信、念、進、定、慧根,於諸師長,恭敬供養,常為
T12n0374_p0470a04║法利,不為食利。菩薩若持十二部經,若讀、若
T12n0374_p0470a05║誦,常為眾生令得解脫、安隱、快樂,終不自為。何
T12n0374_p0470a06║以故?菩薩常修出世間心及出家心、無為之
T12n0374_p0470a07║心、無諍訟心、無垢穢心、無繫縛心、無取著心、
T12n0374_p0470a08║無覆蓋心、無無記心、無生死心、無疑網心、無貪
T12n0374_p0470a09║欲心、無瞋恚心、無愚癡心、無憍慢心、無穢濁心、
T12n0374_p0470a10║無煩惱心、無苦心、無量心、廣大心、虛空心、無
T12n0374_p0470a11║心、無無心、調心、不護心、無覆藏心、無世間心、
T12n0374_p0470a12║常定心、常修心、常解脫心、無報心、無願心、善願
T12n0374_p0470a13║心、無誤心、柔軟心、不住心、自在心、無漏心、第
T12n0374_p0470a14║一義心、不退心、無常心、正直心、無諂曲心、純
T12n0374_p0470a15║善心、無多少心、無堅硬心、無凡夫心、無聲
T12n0374_p0470a16║聞心、無緣覺心,善知心界、知心生界、知心住界、
T12n0374_p0470a17║知心自在界心,是故今得十力、四無所畏、大
T12n0374_p0470a18║悲、三念處、常樂我淨,是故得稱如來乃至婆
T12n0374_p0470a19║伽婆,是名菩薩摩訶薩念佛。 「云何菩薩摩訶
T12n0374_p0470a20║薩念法?善男子!菩薩摩訶薩思惟諸佛所可
T12n0374_p0470a21║說法最妙最上,因是法故,能令眾生得現在
T12n0374_p0470a22║果。惟此正法,無有時節,法眼所見,非肉眼見,
T12n0374_p0470a23║然不可以譬喻為比,不生、不出、不住、不滅、不
T12n0374_p0470a24║始、不終、無為、無數,無舍宅者為作舍宅,無歸
T12n0374_p0470a25║作歸,無明作明,未到彼岸令到彼岸,為無香
T12n0374_p0470a26║處作無礙香,不可見見、不動不轉、不長不短,
T12n0374_p0470a27║永斷諸樂而安隱樂,畢竟微妙,非色斷色而
T12n0374_p0470a28║亦是色,乃至非識斷識而亦是識,非業斷業,
T12n0374_p0470a29║非結斷結,非物斷物而亦是物,非界斷界而
T12n0374_p0470b01║亦是界,非有斷有而亦是有,非入斷入而亦
T12n0374_p0470b02║是入,非因斷因而亦是因,非果斷果而亦是
T12n0374_p0470b03║果,非虛非實,斷一切實而亦是實,非生非滅,
T12n0374_p0470b04║永離生滅而亦是滅,非相非非相,斷一切相
T12n0374_p0470b05║而亦是相,非教非不教而亦是師,非怖非安,
T12n0374_p0470b06║斷一切怖而亦是安,非忍非不忍,永斷不忍而
T12n0374_p0470b07║亦是忍,非止非不止,斷一切止而亦是止,一切
T12n0374_p0470b08║法頂,悉能永斷一切煩惱,清淨無相,永脫諸相,
T12n0374_p0470b09║無量眾生畢竟住處,能滅一切生死熾火,乃是
T12n0374_p0470b10║諸佛所遊居處,常不變易,是名菩薩念法。 「云
T12n0374_p0470b11║何念僧?諸佛聖僧,如法而住,受正直法,隨順
T12n0374_p0470b12║修行,不可覩見、不可捉持、不可破壞、無能嬈
T12n0374_p0470b13║害、不可思議,一切眾生良祐福田。雖為福田,
T12n0374_p0470b14║無所受取,清淨無穢、無漏、無為、廣普無邊,其
T12n0374_p0470b15║心調柔,平等無二,無有撓濁,常不變易,是
T12n0374_p0470b16║名念僧。 「云何念戒?菩薩思惟有戒,不破不漏,
T12n0374_p0470b17║不壞不雜,雖無形色,而可護持,雖無觸對,善
T12n0374_p0470b18║修方便,可得具足,無有過咎,諸佛菩薩之所
T12n0374_p0470b19║讚歎,是大方等大涅槃因。善男子!譬如大
T12n0374_p0470b20║地、船舫、瓔珞、大姓、大海、灰汁、舍宅、刀劍、橋梁、
T12n0374_p0470b21║良醫妙藥、阿伽陀藥、如意寶珠、脚足眼目、父
T12n0374_p0470b22║母陰涼,無能劫盜不可嬈害,火不能焚,水
T12n0374_p0470b23║不能漂。大山梯蹬,諸佛菩薩妙寶勝幢,若
T12n0374_p0470b24║住是戒,得須陀洹果,我亦有分,然我不須。何
T12n0374_p0470b25║以故?若我得是須陀洹果,不能廣度一切眾
T12n0374_p0470b26║生。若住是戒,則得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,我
T12n0374_p0470b27║亦有分,是我所欲。何以故?若得阿耨多羅三
T12n0374_p0470b28║藐三菩提,當為眾生廣說妙法而作救護。是
T12n0374_p0470b29║名菩薩摩訶薩念戒。 「云何念施?菩薩摩訶薩
T12n0374_p0470c01║深觀此施,乃是阿耨多羅三藐三菩提因,諸
T12n0374_p0470c02║佛菩薩親近修集如是布施,我亦如是親近
T12n0374_p0470c03║修集,若不惠施,不能莊嚴四部之眾。施雖不
T12n0374_p0470c04║能畢竟斷結,而能除破現在煩惱。以施因緣
T12n0374_p0470c05║故,常為十方無量無邊恒河沙等世界眾生之
T12n0374_p0470c06║所稱歎。菩薩摩訶薩施眾生食,則施其命,以
T12n0374_p0470c07║是果報,成佛之時,常不變易。以施樂故,成佛
T12n0374_p0470c08║之時則得安樂。菩薩施時,如法求財,不侵彼
T12n0374_p0470c09║施此,是故成佛得清淨涅槃。菩薩施時,令諸
T12n0374_p0470c10║眾生不求而得,是故成佛得自在。我以施因
T12n0374_p0470c11║緣,令他得力,是故成佛獲得十力。以施因緣
T12n0374_p0470c12║令他得語,是故成佛得四無礙。諸佛菩薩修
T12n0374_p0470c13║集是施,為涅槃因,我亦如是修集布施,為涅
T12n0374_p0470c14║槃因。廣說如雜花中。 「云何念天?有四天王
T12n0374_p0470c15║處,乃至非想非非想處。若有信心,得四天王
T12n0374_p0470c16║處,我亦有分。若戒、多聞、布施、智慧,得四天王
T12n0374_p0470c17║處,乃至得非想非非想處,我亦有分;然非我
T12n0374_p0470c18║所欲。何以故?四天王處乃至非想非非想處
T12n0374_p0470c19║皆是無常,以無常故,生老病死,以是義故,非
T12n0374_p0470c20║我所欲。譬如幻化,誑於愚夫;智慧之人,所不
T12n0374_p0470c21║惑著。如幻化者即是四天王處,乃至非想非
T12n0374_p0470c22║非想處。愚者即是一切凡夫,我則不同凡夫
T12n0374_p0470c23║愚人。我曾聞有第一義天,謂諸佛菩薩常不
T12n0374_p0470c24║變易,以常住故,不生、不老、不病、不死,我為眾
T12n0374_p0470c25║生精勤求於第一義天。何以故?第一義天能
T12n0374_p0470c26║令眾生除斷煩惱,猶如意樹。若我有信乃至
T12n0374_p0470c27║有慧,則能得是第一義天,當為眾生廣分別說
T12n0374_p0470c28║第一義天。是名菩薩摩訶薩念天。 「善男子!是
T12n0374_p0470c29║名菩薩非世間也,是為世間不知見覺,而是
T12n0374_p0471a01║菩薩所知見覺。善男子!若我弟子,謂受持讀
T12n0374_p0471a02║誦、書寫演說十二部經,及以受持讀誦、書寫
T12n0374_p0471a03║敷演、解說大涅槃經,等無差別者,是義不然。
T12n0374_p0471a04║何以故?善男子!大涅槃者,即是一切諸佛世
T12n0374_p0471a05║尊甚深祕藏,以是諸佛甚深祕藏,是則為勝。
T12n0374_p0471a06║善男子!以是義故,大涅槃經甚奇、甚特、不可
T12n0374_p0471a07║思議。」 迦葉菩薩白佛言:「世尊!我亦知是大涅
T12n0374_p0471a08║槃經,甚奇甚特不可思議,佛法眾僧不可思
T12n0374_p0471a09║議,菩薩菩提、大般涅槃亦不可思議。世尊!
T12n0374_p0471a10║以何義故,復言菩薩不可思議?」 「善男子!菩薩
T12n0374_p0471a11║摩訶薩無有教者,而能自發菩提之心,既發
T12n0374_p0471a12║心已,勤修精進。正使大火焚燒身首,終不求
T12n0374_p0471a13║救,捨念法心。何以故?菩薩摩訶薩常自思
T12n0374_p0471a14║惟:『我於無量阿僧祇劫,或在地獄、餓鬼、畜生、
T12n0374_p0471a15║人中、天上,為諸結火之所燒然,初不曾得一
T12n0374_p0471a16║決定法。決定法者,即是阿耨多羅三藐三菩
T12n0374_p0471a17║提。若我為於阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,終不護
T12n0374_p0471a18║惜身心與命。我為阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,正
T12n0374_p0471a19║使碎身猶如微塵,終不放捨勤精進也。何
T12n0374_p0471a20║以故?勤進之心,即是阿耨多羅三藐三菩
T12n0374_p0471a21║提因。』善男子!如是菩薩,未見阿耨多羅三藐
T12n0374_p0471a22║三菩提,乃能如是不惜身命,況復見已,是故
T12n0374_p0471a23║菩薩不可思議。又復不可思議,菩薩摩訶薩
T12n0374_p0471a24║所見生死無量過患,非是聲聞緣覺所及,雖
T12n0374_p0471a25║知生死無量過惡,為眾生故,於中受苦,不生
T12n0374_p0471a26║厭離,是故復名不可思議。菩薩摩訶薩為眾
T12n0374_p0471a27║生故,雖在地獄,受諸苦惱如三禪樂,是故
T12n0374_p0471a28║復名不可思議。善男子!譬如長者,其家失火。
T12n0374_p0471a29║長者見已從舍而出,諸子在後未脫火難。長
T12n0374_p0471b01║者爾時定知火害,為諸子故,旋還赴救,不顧
T12n0374_p0471b02║其難。菩薩摩訶薩亦復如是,雖知生死多
T12n0374_p0471b03║諸過惡,為眾生故,處之不厭,是故復名不可
T12n0374_p0471b04║思議。善男子!無量眾生發菩提心,見生死
T12n0374_p0471b05║中多諸過惡,心即退沒,或為聲聞,或為緣覺。
T12n0374_p0471b06║若有菩薩聞是經者,終不退失菩提之心而
T12n0374_p0471b07║為聲聞、辟支佛也。如是菩薩雖復未階初不
T12n0374_p0471b08║動地,而心堅固,無有退沒,是故復名不可思
T12n0374_p0471b09║議。善男子!若有人言:『我能浮渡大海之水。』
T12n0374_p0471b10║如是之言可思議不?」 「不也。世尊!如是之言,
T12n0374_p0471b11║或可思議,或不可思議。何以故?若人渡者,則
T12n0374_p0471b12║不可思議。阿修羅渡,則可思議。」 「善男子!我
T12n0374_p0471b13║亦不說阿修羅也,正說人耳。」 「世尊!人中亦
T12n0374_p0471b14║有可思議者,不可思議者。世尊!人亦二種:
T12n0374_p0471b15║一者聖人,二者凡夫。凡夫之人則不可思議,
T12n0374_p0471b16║賢聖之人則可思議。」 「善男子!我說凡夫,不說
T12n0374_p0471b17║聖人。」 「世尊!若凡夫人,實不可思議。」 「善男子!
T12n0374_p0471b18║凡夫之人,實不能渡大海水也。如是菩薩,實
T12n0374_p0471b19║能渡於生死大海,是故復名不可思議。善男
T12n0374_p0471b20║子!若有人能以藕根絲懸須彌山,可思議不?」
T12n0374_p0471b21║「不也。世尊!」 「善男子!菩薩摩訶薩於一念頃,悉
T12n0374_p0471b22║能稱量一切生死,是故復名不可思議。善男
T12n0374_p0471b23║子!菩薩摩訶薩已於無量阿僧祇劫,常觀生
T12n0374_p0471b24║死、無常、無我、無樂、無淨,而為眾生分別演說
T12n0374_p0471b25║常樂我淨,雖如是說,然非邪見,是故復名不
T12n0374_p0471b26║可思議。善男子!如人入水,水不能漂,入大
T12n0374_p0471b27║猛火,火不能燒,如是之事不可思議。菩薩摩
T12n0374_p0471b28║訶薩亦復如是,雖處生死,不為生死之所惱
T12n0374_p0471b29║害,是故復名不可思議。善男子!人有三品,謂
T12n0374_p0471c01║上中下。下品之人初入胎時,作是念言:『我今
T12n0374_p0471c02║處廁,眾穢歸處,如死屍間,眾蕀刺中,大黑闇
T12n0374_p0471c03║處。』初出胎時復作是念:『我今出廁,出眾穢處,
T12n0374_p0471c04║乃至出於大黑闇處。』中品之人作是念言:『我
T12n0374_p0471c05║今入於眾樹林中,清淨河中,房舍屋宅。』出時
T12n0374_p0471c06║亦爾。上品之人作是念言:『我昇殿堂,在花林
T12n0374_p0471c07║間,乘馬乘象,登涉高山。』出時亦爾。菩薩摩
T12n0374_p0471c08║訶薩初入胎時自知入胎,住時知住、出時知
T12n0374_p0471c09║出,終不生於貪瞋之心,而未得階初住地也,
T12n0374_p0471c10║是故復名不可思議。 「善男子!阿耨多羅三藐
T12n0374_p0471c11║三菩提,實不可以譬喻為比。善男子!心亦不
T12n0374_p0471c12║可以方喻為比,而皆可說。菩薩摩訶薩無有師
T12n0374_p0471c13║諮受學之處,而能得於阿耨多羅三藐三菩提
T12n0374_p0471c14║法。得是法已,心無慳悋,常為眾生而演說之,
T12n0374_p0471c15║是故復名不可思議。善男子!菩薩摩訶薩有
T12n0374_p0471c16║身遠離非口,有口遠離非身,有非身非口而
T12n0374_p0471c17║亦遠離。身遠離者,謂離殺、盜、婬,是名身遠離。
T12n0374_p0471c18║非口、口遠離者,謂離妄語、兩舌、惡口、無義語,
T12n0374_p0471c19║是名口遠離。非身、非身非口是遠離者,所謂
T12n0374_p0471c20║遠離貪嫉、瞋恚、邪見。善男子,是名非身非口
T12n0374_p0471c21║而亦遠離。善男子!菩薩摩訶薩不見一法是
T12n0374_p0471c22║身是業及與離主,而亦有離,是故復名不可
T12n0374_p0471c23║思議;口亦如是。善男子!從身離身,從口離口,
T12n0374_p0471c24║從慧遠離非身非口。善男子!實有此慧,然不
T12n0374_p0471c25║能令菩薩遠離。何以故?善男子!無有一法能
T12n0374_p0471c26║壞、能作,有為法性異生異滅,是故此慧不能
T12n0374_p0471c27║遠離。善男子!慧不能破、火不能燒、水不能爛、
T12n0374_p0471c28║風不能動、地不能持、生不能生、老不能老、住
T12n0374_p0471c29║不能住、壞不能壞、貪不能貪、瞋不能瞋、癡不
T12n0374_p0472a01║能癡,以有為性異生異滅故,菩薩摩訶薩終
T12n0374_p0472a02║不生念:『我以此慧破諸煩惱。』而自說言:『我破
T12n0374_p0472a03║煩惱。』雖作是說,非是虛妄,是故復名不可思
T12n0374_p0472a04║議。」 迦葉復言:「世尊!我今始知菩薩摩訶薩不
T12n0374_p0472a05║可思議,佛法、眾僧、大涅槃經及受持者、菩提、
T12n0374_p0472a06║涅槃,不可思議。世尊!無上佛法當久近住?幾
T12n0374_p0472a07║時而滅?」 「善男子!若大涅槃經乃至有是五行,
T12n0374_p0472a08║所謂聖行、梵行、天行、病行、嬰兒行,若我弟子,
T12n0374_p0472a09║有能受持讀誦、書寫演說其義,為諸眾生之
T12n0374_p0472a10║所恭敬、尊重、讚歎、種種供養,當知爾時佛法
T12n0374_p0472a11║未滅。善男子!若大涅槃經具足流布,當爾之
T12n0374_p0472a12║時,我諸弟子,多犯禁戒,造作眾惡,不能敬信
T12n0374_p0472a13║如是經典,以不信故,不能受持讀誦、書寫解說
T12n0374_p0472a14║其義,不為眾人之所恭敬乃至供養,見受持
T12n0374_p0472a15║者輕毀誹謗:『汝是六師非佛弟子。』當知佛法
T12n0374_p0472a16║將滅不久。」 迦葉菩薩復白佛言:「世尊!我親從
T12n0374_p0472a17║佛聞如是義,迦葉佛法住世七日,然後滅盡。
T12n0374_p0472a18║世尊!迦葉如來有是經不?如其有者,云何言
T12n0374_p0472a19║滅?如其無者,云何說言大涅槃經是諸如來
T12n0374_p0472a20║祕密之藏?」 佛言:「善男子!我先說言,惟有文
T12n0374_p0472a21║殊乃解是義。今當重說,至心諦聽。善男子!
T12n0374_p0472a22║諸佛世尊有二種法:一者世法,二者第一義
T12n0374_p0472a23║法。世法者則有壞滅;第一義法則不壞滅。
T12n0374_p0472a24║復有二種:一者無常、無我、無樂、無淨,二者常
T12n0374_p0472a25║樂我淨。無常、無我、無樂、無淨,則有壞滅;常樂
T12n0374_p0472a26║我淨則無壞滅。復有二種:一者二乘所持,二
T12n0374_p0472a27║者菩薩所持。二乘所持則有壞滅;菩薩所持
T12n0374_p0472a28║則無壞滅。復有二種:一者外,二者內。外法者
T12n0374_p0472a29║則有壞滅;內法者則無壞滅。復有二種:一者
T12n0374_p0472b01║有為,二者無為:有為之法則有壞滅;無為之
T12n0374_p0472b02║法無有壞滅。復有二種:一者可得,二者不可
T12n0374_p0472b03║得。可得之法則有壞滅;不可得者無有壞滅。
T12n0374_p0472b04║復有二種:一者共法,二者不共法。共法壞
T12n0374_p0472b05║滅;不共之法無有壞滅。復有二種;一者人中,
T12n0374_p0472b06║二者天中。人中壞滅;天無壞滅。復有二種:
T12n0374_p0472b07║一者十一部經,二者方等經。十一部經則有
T12n0374_p0472b08║壞滅;方等經典無有壞滅。善男子!若我弟子
T12n0374_p0472b09║受持讀誦、書寫解說方等經典,恭敬供養、尊
T12n0374_p0472b10║重讚歎,當知爾時佛法不滅。 「善男子!汝向
T12n0374_p0472b11║所問迦葉如來有是經不者,善男子!大涅
T12n0374_p0472b12║槃經悉是一切諸佛祕藏。何以故?諸佛雖有
T12n0374_p0472b13║十一部經,不說佛性、不說如來常樂我淨、諸
T12n0374_p0472b14║佛世尊永不畢竟入於涅槃,是故此經名
T12n0374_p0472b15║為如來祕密之藏。十一部經所不說故,故名
T12n0374_p0472b16║為藏。如人七寶不出外用,名之為藏。善男子!
T12n0374_p0472b17║是人所以藏積此物,為未來事故。何等未來
T12n0374_p0472b18║事?所謂穀貴、賊來侵國、值遇惡王、為用贖命、
T12n0374_p0472b19║道路澁難,財難得時乃當出用。善男子!諸
T12n0374_p0472b20║佛如來祕密之藏亦復如是,為未來世,諸惡
T12n0374_p0472b21║比丘畜不淨物,為四眾說如來畢竟入於涅
T12n0374_p0472b22║槃,讀誦世典不敬佛經,如是等惡現於世時,
T12n0374_p0472b23║如來為欲滅是諸惡,令得遠離邪命利養,如
T12n0374_p0472b24║來則為演說是經。若是經典祕密之藏滅不
T12n0374_p0472b25║現時,當知爾時佛法則滅。 「善男子!大涅槃
T12n0374_p0472b26║經常不變易,云何難言迦葉佛時有是經不?
T12n0374_p0472b27║善男子!迦葉佛時,所有眾生貪欲微薄,智慧
T12n0374_p0472b28║滋多,諸菩薩摩訶薩等調柔易化,有大威德,
T12n0374_p0472b29║總持不忘,如大象王世界清淨。一切眾生悉
T12n0374_p0472c01║知如來終不畢竟入於涅槃,常住不變。雖有
T12n0374_p0472c02║是典,不須演說。善男子!今世眾生多諸煩惱、
T12n0374_p0472c03║愚癡、憙忘、無有智慧,多諸疑網,信根不立,世
T12n0374_p0472c04║界不淨,一切眾生咸謂如來無常、遷變、畢竟
T12n0374_p0472c05║入於大般涅槃,是故如來演說是典。善男子!
T12n0374_p0472c06║迦葉佛法實亦不滅。何以故?常不變故。善
T12n0374_p0472c07║男子!若有眾生我見無我、無我見我,常見無
T12n0374_p0472c08║常、無常見常,樂見無樂、無樂見樂,淨見不淨、
T12n0374_p0472c09║不淨見淨,滅見不滅、不滅見滅,罪見非罪、
T12n0374_p0472c10║非罪見罪,輕罪見重、重罪見輕,乘見非乘、非
T12n0374_p0472c11║乘見乘,道見非道、非道見道,實是菩提見非
T12n0374_p0472c12║菩提、實非菩提謬見菩提,苦見非苦、集見非
T12n0374_p0472c13║集、滅見非滅、實見非實,實是世諦見第一義
T12n0374_p0472c14║諦、第一義諦見是世諦,歸見非歸、非歸見歸,
T12n0374_p0472c15║以真佛語名為魔語、實是魔語以為佛語,如
T12n0374_p0472c16║是之時,諸佛乃說大涅槃經。善男子!寧說蚊
T12n0374_p0472c17║[口*(隹/乃)]盡大海底,不可說言如來法滅。寧說口
T12n0374_p0472c18║吹須彌散壞,不可說言如來法滅。寧言以索
T12n0374_p0472c19║繫縛猛風,不可說言如來法滅。寧言佉陀
T12n0374_p0472c20║羅火中生蓮花,不可說言如來法滅。寧說阿
T12n0374_p0472c21║伽陀藥而為毒藥,不可說言如來法滅。寧說月
T12n0374_p0472c22║可令熱、日可令冷,不可說言如來法滅。寧說
T12n0374_p0472c23║四大各捨己性,不可說言如來法滅。 「善男子!
T12n0374_p0472c24║若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提已,未有
T12n0374_p0472c25║弟子解甚深義,彼佛世尊便涅槃者,當知
T12n0374_p0472c26║是法不久住世。復次善男子!若佛初出得阿
T12n0374_p0472c27║耨多羅三藐三菩提已,有諸弟子解甚深義,
T12n0374_p0472c28║佛雖涅槃,當知是法久住於世。 「復次善男
T12n0374_p0472c29║子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提已,雖
T12n0374_p0473a01║有弟子解甚深義,無有篤信白衣檀越敬重
T12n0374_p0473a02║佛法,佛便涅槃,當知是法不久住世。復次
T12n0374_p0473a03║善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提
T12n0374_p0473a04║已,有諸弟子解甚深義多,有篤信白衣檀越
T12n0374_p0473a05║敬重佛法,佛雖涅槃,當知佛法久住於世。
T12n0374_p0473a06║「復次善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三
T12n0374_p0473a07║菩提已,有諸弟子解甚深義,雖有篤信白衣
T12n0374_p0473a08║檀越敬重佛法,而諸弟子演說經法貪為利
T12n0374_p0473a09║養,不為涅槃,佛復滅度,當知是法不久住世。
T12n0374_p0473a10║復次善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三
T12n0374_p0473a11║菩提已,有諸弟子解甚深義,復有篤信白衣
T12n0374_p0473a12║檀越敬重佛法,彼諸弟子凡所演說不貪利
T12n0374_p0473a13║養為求涅槃,佛雖滅度,當知是法久住於
T12n0374_p0473a14║世。 「復次善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐
T12n0374_p0473a15║三菩提已,雖有弟子解甚深義,復有篤信白
T12n0374_p0473a16║衣檀越敬重佛法,而諸弟子多起諍訟,互相
T12n0374_p0473a17║是非,佛復涅槃,當知是法不久住世。復次
T12n0374_p0473a18║善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提
T12n0374_p0473a19║已,有諸弟子解甚深義,復有篤信白衣檀越
T12n0374_p0473a20║敬重佛法,彼諸弟子修和敬法,不相是非,互
T12n0374_p0473a21║相尊重,佛雖涅槃,當知是法久住不滅。 「復
T12n0374_p0473a22║次善男子!若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩
T12n0374_p0473a23║提已,雖有弟子解甚深義,復有篤信白衣檀
T12n0374_p0473a24║越敬重佛法,彼諸弟子為大涅槃而演說法,
T12n0374_p0473a25║互相恭敬不起諍訟,然畜一切不淨之物,復
T12n0374_p0473a26║自讚言:『我得須陀洹果乃至阿羅漢果。』佛復
T12n0374_p0473a27║涅槃,當知是法不久住世。復次善男子!若
T12n0374_p0473a28║佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提已,有諸弟
T12n0374_p0473a29║子解甚深義,復有篤信白衣檀越敬重佛法,
T12n0374_p0473b01║彼諸弟子為大涅槃演說經法,善修和敬互
T12n0374_p0473b02║相尊重,不畜一切不淨之物,亦不自言得須
T12n0374_p0473b03║陀洹乃至得阿羅漢,彼佛世尊雖復滅度,當
T12n0374_p0473b04║知是法久住於世。 「復次善男子!若佛初出
T12n0374_p0473b05║得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提已,有諸弟子,乃至
T12n0374_p0473b06║不畜不淨之物,又不自言得須陀洹乃至阿
T12n0374_p0473b07║羅漢,各執所見,種種異說,而作是言:『長老!
T12n0374_p0473b08║諸佛所制四重之法,乃至七滅諍法,為眾生
T12n0374_p0473b09║故,或遮或開,十二部經亦復如是。何以故?
T12n0374_p0473b10║佛知國土時節各異,眾生不同利鈍差別,是
T12n0374_p0473b11║故如來或遮或開,有輕重說。善男子!譬如良
T12n0374_p0473b12║醫,為病服乳,為病遮乳;熱病聽服,冷病則遮。
T12n0374_p0473b13║如來亦爾,觀諸眾生煩惱病根,亦開亦遮。長
T12n0374_p0473b14║老!我親從佛聞如是義,惟我知義,汝不能
T12n0374_p0473b15║知。惟我解律,汝不能解。我知諸經,汝不能
T12n0374_p0473b16║知。』彼佛復滅,當知是法不久住世。復次善
T12n0374_p0473b17║男子,若佛初出得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提已,
T12n0374_p0473b18║有諸弟子,乃至不言我得須陀洹果至阿羅
T12n0374_p0473b19║漢,亦不說言:『諸佛世尊為眾生故或遮或開。
T12n0374_p0473b20║長老!我親從佛聞如是義,如是法,如是律。長
T12n0374_p0473b21║老!當依如來十二部經,此義若是,我當受持。
T12n0374_p0473b22║如其非者,我當棄捨。』彼佛世尊雖復涅槃,當
T12n0374_p0473b23║知是法久住於世。 「善男子!我法滅時,有聲
T12n0374_p0473b24║聞弟子,或說有神、或說神空,或說有中陰、或
T12n0374_p0473b25║說無中陰,或說有三世、或說無三世,或說有
T12n0374_p0473b26║三乘、或說無三乘,或言一切有、或言一切無,
T12n0374_p0473b27║或言眾生有始有終、或言眾生無始無終,或
T12n0374_p0473b28║言十二因緣是有為法、或言因緣是無為法,
T12n0374_p0473b29║或言如來有病苦行、或言如來無病苦行,或
T12n0374_p0473c01║言如來不聽比丘食十種肉,何等為十?人、蛇、
T12n0374_p0473c02║象、馬、驢、狗、師子、猪狐、獼猴,其餘悉聽;或言一
T12n0374_p0473c03║切不聽。或言比丘不作五事,何等為五?不
T12n0374_p0473c04║賣生口、刀、酒、酪沙、胡麻油等,其餘悉聽。或
T12n0374_p0473c05║言不聽入五種舍,何等為五?屠兒、婬女、酒家、
T12n0374_p0473c06║王宮、旃陀羅舍,餘舍悉聽。或言不聽著憍
T12n0374_p0473c07║奢耶衣,餘一切聽。或言如來聽諸比丘受畜
T12n0374_p0473c08║衣食臥具,其價各直十萬兩金;或言不聽。
T12n0374_p0473c09║或言涅槃常樂我淨、或言涅槃直是結盡,更
T12n0374_p0473c10║無別法名為涅槃,譬如織縷名之為衣,衣既
T12n0374_p0473c11║壞已,名之無衣,實無別法名無衣也,涅槃
T12n0374_p0473c12║之體亦復如是。善男子!當爾之時,我諸弟子
T12n0374_p0473c13║正說者少,邪說者多;受正法少,受邪法多;受
T12n0374_p0473c14║佛語少,受魔語多。 「善男子!爾時拘睒彌國
T12n0374_p0473c15║有二弟子:一者羅漢,二者破戒。破戒徒眾
T12n0374_p0473c16║凡有五百,羅漢徒眾其數一百。破戒者說:
T12n0374_p0473c17║『如來畢竟入於涅槃,我親從佛聞如是義。如
T12n0374_p0473c18║來所制四重之法,若持亦可,犯亦無罪。我今
T12n0374_p0473c19║亦得阿羅漢果,四無礙智。而阿羅漢亦犯如
T12n0374_p0473c20║是四重之法,四重之法若是實罪,阿羅漢者
T12n0374_p0473c21║終不應犯。如來在世制言堅持,臨涅槃時皆
T12n0374_p0473c22║悉放捨。』阿羅漢比丘言:『長老!汝不應說如
T12n0374_p0473c23║來畢竟入於涅槃,我知如來常不變易。如來
T12n0374_p0473c24║在世及涅槃後,犯四重禁罪無差別。若言羅
T12n0374_p0473c25║漢犯四重禁,是義不然。何以故?須陀洹人
T12n0374_p0473c26║尚不犯禁,況阿羅漢?若長老言,我是羅漢。
T12n0374_p0473c27║阿羅漢者,終不生想我得羅漢。阿羅漢者,惟
T12n0374_p0473c28║說善法,不說不善。長老所說,純是非法。若有
T12n0374_p0473c29║得見十二部經,定知長老非阿羅漢。』善男子!
T12n0374_p0474a01║爾時破戒比丘徒眾,即共斷是阿羅漢命。善
T12n0374_p0474a02║男子!是時魔王,因是二眾忿恚之心,悉共害
T12n0374_p0474a03║是六百比丘。爾時凡夫各共說言:『哀哉佛法,
T12n0374_p0474a04║於是滅盡。』而我正法實不滅也。爾時其國有
T12n0374_p0474a05║十二萬諸大菩薩,善持我法,云何當言我法
T12n0374_p0474a06║滅耶?當于爾時,閻浮提內無一比丘為我
T12n0374_p0474a07║弟子。爾時波旬悉以大火焚燒一切所有經
T12n0374_p0474a08║典,其中或有遺餘在者,諸婆羅門即共偷取,
T12n0374_p0474a09║處處採拾安置己典。以是義故,諸小菩薩,佛
T12n0374_p0474a10║未出時,率共信受婆羅門語。諸婆羅門雖作
T12n0374_p0474a11║是說:『我有齋戒。』而諸外道真實無也。諸外道
T12n0374_p0474a12║等雖復說言:『有我樂淨。』而實不解我樂淨義。
T12n0374_p0474a13║直以佛法一字、二字、一句、二句,說言我典,有
T12n0374_p0474a14║如是義。」 爾時拘尸那城娑羅雙樹間,無量
T12n0374_p0474a15║無邊阿僧祇眾聞是語已,悉共唱言:「世間虛
T12n0374_p0474a16║空,世間虛空。」 迦葉菩薩告諸大眾:「汝等且
T12n0374_p0474a17║莫憂愁啼哭,世間不空,如來常住,無有變易,
T12n0374_p0474a18║法僧亦爾。」爾時大眾,聞是語已,啼哭即止,
T12n0374_p0474a19║悉發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心。◎
T12n0374_p0474a20║大般涅槃經卷第十八
【經文資訊】大正藏第 12 冊 No. 0374 大般涅槃經
【版本記錄】CBETA 電子佛典 2016.06,完成日期:2016/06/15
【編輯說明】本資料庫由中華電子佛典協會(CBETA)依大正藏所編輯
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