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T04n0212_002 出曜經 第2卷

CBETA 電子佛典集成 » 大正藏 (T) » 第 4 冊 » No.0212 » 第 2 卷 ▲上一卷 ▼下一卷 前往第

 
T04n0212_p0615b17║
T04n0212_p0615b18║
T04n0212_p0615b19║出曜經卷第二
T04n0212_p0615b20║
T04n0212_p0615b21║
T04n0212_p0615b22║◎無常品之二

T04n0212_p0615b23║「如河駛流,  往而不返,  人命如是,
T04n0212_p0615b24║ 逝者不還。」

T04n0212_p0615b25║是時,彼比丘聞此語已,內自慚愧,解知一切
T04n0212_p0615b26║萬物皆當歸死,無常變易不可久居,恩愛別
T04n0212_p0615b27║離怨憎會苦,思惟無我無人無命,心意專正
T04n0212_p0615b28║趣泥洹門,江水所漂蓋不足言,死河所溺永
T04n0212_p0615b29║劫不解,當求方便去離駛流。爾時比丘聞佛
T04n0212_p0615c01║切教,心開意解淡然無想,即於佛前離生
T04n0212_p0615c02║死難成阿羅漢,三自稱善,快哉福報所願者
T04n0212_p0615c03║得。爾時坐上無數眾生,聞此比丘成道果證,
T04n0212_p0615c04║皆發無欲清淨之行,皆得須陀洹果。
T04n0212_p0615c05║ 所造功勞,  永世乃獲,  如杖擊水,
T04n0212_p0615c06║ 離則還合。

T04n0212_p0615c07║昔佛在毘耶離城甘梨園中。爾時眾多比丘
T04n0212_p0615c08║觀見土界,國豐民盛所居平正,穀食豐賤縱
T04n0212_p0615c09║情恣意,不隨法禁上下相慢各謂真正。爾時
T04n0212_p0615c10║世尊愍彼愚惑,以種種方便導引法味,即集
T04n0212_p0615c11║大眾告諸比丘:「夫為智者以譬喻自解,猶如
T04n0212_p0615c12║地界水滿其中,東西南北地無空缺處,有一
T04n0212_p0615c13║瞎鼈無數千劫不可稱計生長於水,有一薄
T04n0212_p0615c14║板縱廣一肘唯有一孔,為風所吹,然彼瞎鼈
T04n0212_p0615c15║經歷百歲一舉東看,風吹板在南方,云何比
T04n0212_p0615c16║丘!彼瞎鼈者為值孔不?」對曰:「不也。世尊!」「復經
T04n0212_p0615c17║百歲復得南看,風吹板復在西方。云何比丘!
T04n0212_p0615c18║彼瞎鼈者為值孔不?」對曰:「不也。世尊!」「如是四
T04n0212_p0615c19║方隅角亦復如是,云何比丘!彼瞎鼈者會當
T04n0212_p0615c20║值孔不乎?」對曰:「不也。世尊!」時諸比丘白世尊
T04n0212_p0615c21║曰:「此瞎鼈身會當與孔相值不耶?」世尊告
T04n0212_p0615c22║曰:「此事極難,時乃有相值期耳。受畜生身復
T04n0212_p0615c23║難,於此畜生求人復甚難。於此如是,比丘!人
T04n0212_p0615c24║身難得,雖得為人值命促短,不類古人壽命
T04n0212_p0615c25║無量。毘婆尸世尊出現於世,如來、至真、等正
T04n0212_p0615c26║覺,自佛去世人壽七萬歲,復有佛出,名曰式
T04n0212_p0615c27║棄如來、至真、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無
T04n0212_p0615c28║上士、道法御、天人師,號佛、世尊。彼佛去世後
T04n0212_p0615c29║人壽六萬歲,爾時有佛,名曰毘舍浮如來、至
T04n0212_p0616a01║真、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無上士、道法
T04n0212_p0616a02║御、天人師,號佛、世尊,出現於世。彼佛去世後
T04n0212_p0616a03║人壽五萬歲,爾時有佛,名曰迦鳩留如來、至
T04n0212_p0616a04║真、等正覺,十號句義出現於世。彼佛去世後
T04n0212_p0616a05║人壽四萬歲,爾時有佛,名曰迦那迦牟尼如
T04n0212_p0616a06║來、至真、等正覺,十號句義。彼佛去世後人壽
T04n0212_p0616a07║二萬歲,有佛出世,名曰迦葉如來、至真、等正
T04n0212_p0616a08║覺,十號句義。彼佛去世後人壽百歲,我今出
T04n0212_p0616a09║世,名釋迦文如來、至真、等正覺,十號句義。比
T04n0212_p0616a10║丘當知,極壽百歲出者無幾,壽百歲者時時乃
T04n0212_p0616a11║有,是故說曰,所造功勞永世乃獲。古人積德,
T04n0212_p0616a12║壽命無量眾行備具,亦無疾病凶疫惡氣,人
T04n0212_p0616a13║壽八萬四千歲,時有三疾患:一曰所欲,二曰飢
T04n0212_p0616a14║渴,三曰衰老。如今,比丘!五濁鼎沸,世人壽極
T04n0212_p0616a15║短,四百四病纏裹人體。尊者馬聲亦作是說:
T04n0212_p0616a16║「『諸患集為體,  為老死所伺,
T04n0212_p0616a17║  毒劍熾火逼,  萬患守營衛。』

T04n0212_p0616a18║「是故說曰:『所造功勞,永世獲;杖擊水,離
T04n0212_p0616a19║則還合。』如今,比丘!人命危脆不可久保,誰當
T04n0212_p0616a20║貪慕願受此生?唯有凡夫無知之人願生三
T04n0212_p0616a21║有。」時諸人民聞佛所說,皆發清淨不退轉行。
T04n0212_p0616a22║ 譬人操杖,  行牧食牛,  老死猶然,
T04n0212_p0616a23║ 亦養命蟲。

T04n0212_p0616a24║昔佛在摩竭國界羅閱城中,佛將阿難著衣
T04n0212_p0616a25║持鉢,道見有人驅牛千頭,就其美草放烟瞻
T04n0212_p0616a26║候。佛問阿難:「汝見有人驅放群牛不乎?」對曰:
T04n0212_p0616a27║「唯然見之。」佛語阿難:「此群牛本有千頭,在外
T04n0212_p0616a28║瞻守掌不牢固,為虎惡獸所見噉食死者過
T04n0212_p0616a29║半,餘不覺知方相抵觸跳踉喚吼,傷其無智
T04n0212_p0616b01║何乃甚哉?」佛語阿難:「眾生處世亦復如是,計
T04n0212_p0616b02║於吾我不知非常,貪著五欲養育其軀,快心
T04n0212_p0616b03║極意共相殘害。無常宿對卒至無期,曚曚不
T04n0212_p0616b04║覺,何異於彼群牛者乎?雖好水草長養其膚,
T04n0212_p0616b05║但促其命無益於己。」佛還精舍,以此因緣誡
T04n0212_p0616b06║勵眾會四輩弟子,中有二百餘人聞法意悟,
T04n0212_p0616b07║得六神通成阿羅漢。佛告比丘:「或有眾生應
T04n0212_p0616b08║聞切教而得度者,或有眾生應聞妙智思惟
T04n0212_p0616b09║分別而得度者,或有譬喻而得度者,或有愚
T04n0212_p0616b10║闇趣聞一句便得度脫。應聞喻者,此偈則是。
T04n0212_p0616b11║其義隨時料量而得度者,是故說曰,譬人操
T04n0212_p0616b12║杖其事如斯。
T04n0212_p0616b13║ 是日已過,  命則隨減,  如少水魚,
T04n0212_p0616b14║ 斯有何樂?

T04n0212_p0616b15║佛告比丘:「夫人處世,所行不同所見亦異,一
T04n0212_p0616b16║日過去人命隨減,雖壽百年臥消其半。」便與
T04n0212_p0616b17║眾會而說此偈:
T04n0212_p0616b18║「夫人欲立德,  日夜無令空,
T04n0212_p0616b19║ 日夜速如電,  人命迅如是。」

T04n0212_p0616b20║時來會者觀察此義分別修行,日夜已過死
T04n0212_p0616b21║緣難計,愚人依憑染著受有,當念勤興勇
T04n0212_p0616b22║猛心無失體,是故說曰:
T04n0212_p0616b23║「是日已過,  則隨減,  如少水魚,
T04n0212_p0616b24║ 斯有何樂?」

T04n0212_p0616b25║汝等比丘當明此理,大海江河猶有枯竭,萬
T04n0212_p0616b26║刃大魚曝脊在外,況是少水而不然乎?或
T04n0212_p0616b27║有時溝瀑雨溢滿?流疾趣下聲震四遠,彼
T04n0212_p0616b28║岸人喚此不聞聲,此間人喚彼不聞聲。或時
T04n0212_p0616b29║溝澗水盡無餘,四趣眾生雖受形分命則隨
T04n0212_p0616c01║減,如少水魚斯有何樂。或有眾生壽命極長,
T04n0212_p0616c02║諸天壽八萬四千劫,地獄壽一劫,畜生與地
T04n0212_p0616c03║獄同壽,餓鬼壽命無有限量。如尊者滿願至
T04n0212_p0616c04║時持鉢正服,入弗迦羅國。時有餓鬼倚城門
T04n0212_p0616c05║立,比丘滿願問餓鬼曰:「汝今在此何所求索?」
T04n0212_p0616c06║鬼報彼曰:「汝今見我耶?」比丘報曰:「我先見矣。」
T04n0212_p0616c07║鬼復語曰:「我夫入城于今未還,故於此立,自
T04n0212_p0616c08║待夫主耳。」比丘問曰:「汝夫入城為何所求?」
T04n0212_p0616c09║時鬼報言:「今此城中有大長者患癰積久,今
T04n0212_p0616c10║日當潰膿血流溢,夫主將來二人共食以濟
T04n0212_p0616c11║其命。」比丘復問:「汝夫主入城經幾許時?」然彼
T04n0212_p0616c12║城郭逼近江河,舉手指城語比丘曰:「此城於
T04n0212_p0616c13║彼,此岸成敗以來今為第七,我夫入城經爾
T04n0212_p0616c14║許時。」餓鬼受形壽不可稱亦無齊限,然人受
T04n0212_p0616c15║形極壽百歲雖出無幾,是故說曰,如少水魚
T04n0212_p0616c16║斯有何樂?故別說人不墮四趣。
T04n0212_p0616c17║ 不寐夜長,  罷惓道長,  愚生死長,
T04n0212_p0616c18║ 莫知正法。

T04n0212_p0616c19║昔佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。佛告諸比丘:
T04n0212_p0616c20║「有四夜,睡眠者少覺寤者多。云何為四?女與
T04n0212_p0616c21║男想,睡眠者少覺寤者多;男與女想,睡眠者
T04n0212_p0616c22║少覺寤者多;三曰盜賊,睡眠者少覺寤者多;
T04n0212_p0616c23║比丘求定勤修正法,睡眠極少覺寤者多。三
T04n0212_p0616c24║覺夜長修正法,比丘不覺夜長,罷惓道長,
T04n0212_p0616c25║愚生死長,莫知正法。」佛在舍衛國祇洹阿那
T04n0212_p0616c26║律邠阿藍,有一梵志緣本宿世造立功業緣
T04n0212_p0616c27║至應度,暫聞此偈愚生死長。然彼梵志多饒
T04n0212_p0616c28║財寶僕從給使居業成就,所納妻室顏貌殊
T04n0212_p0616c29║特與世無雙,女人姿容一以無闕。時,彼梵志
T04n0212_p0617a01║內自思惟:「我宜往彼至如來所,當來諸佛為
T04n0212_p0617a02║有幾乎?」梵志出城至祇洹精舍到世尊所,共
T04n0212_p0617a03║相問訊在一面立,叉手合掌白世尊曰:「願欲
T04n0212_p0617a04║所問,若見聽者敢自陳啟。」世尊告曰:「恣汝所
T04n0212_p0617a05║問,如來為汝敷演其義。」梵志白曰:「云何世
T04n0212_p0617a06║尊!於當來世,為有幾許等正覺耶?」世尊告曰:
T04n0212_p0617a07║「將來世諸佛數如恒沙。」時彼梵志聞佛所說,
T04n0212_p0617a08║瞻仰喜踊不能自勝,善心生焉。「當來諸佛數
T04n0212_p0617a09║如恒沙,於諸佛所善修梵行,興功立德為福
T04n0212_p0617a10║不惓。然吾處世饒財多寶,僕從給使居業成
T04n0212_p0617a11║就,所納妻室顏貌殊特與世無雙,我依此業
T04n0212_p0617a12║便當分檀布施,有所求索不逆人意。」爾時梵
T04n0212_p0617a13║志聞佛教誡,戢在心懷,繞佛三匝舉手辭讓
T04n0212_p0617a14║便退而去。爾時梵志行道未遠,復作是念:
T04n0212_p0617a15║「我向所啟問將來佛,然吾退忘不問過去諸
T04n0212_p0617a16║佛世尊,我今宜還至世尊所問過去佛。」梵志
T04n0212_p0617a17║即還至世尊所,共相問訊在一面立,爾時梵
T04n0212_p0617a18║志白世尊曰:「過去諸佛為有幾所?」佛告梵志:
T04n0212_p0617a19║「過去諸佛數如恒沙。」梵志復前便自悲泣,並
T04n0212_p0617a20║自舉聲而作是說:「愚處生死纏綿積久,恒沙
T04n0212_p0617a21║諸佛吾不及覩,斯何苦哉?」復自投地宛轉自
T04n0212_p0617a22║責:「斯由放逸,行不從本,使我退在處凡夫地,
T04n0212_p0617a23║或在泥梨地獄畜生餓鬼長夜受苦,刀山劍
T04n0212_p0617a24║樹火車爐炭,或伏雪山劫敗乃移,或處炙獄
T04n0212_p0617a25║受痛無量。雖出為人值生邊地,有佛興世不
T04n0212_p0617a26║值不覩。先有比丘教誨我言愚生死長,誠哉斯
T04n0212_p0617a27║言!我今宜加精勤用意自歸如來,復待將來
T04n0212_p0617a28║諸佛為乎?田業妻婦斯是外役,何必貪慕毀
T04n0212_p0617a29║敗聖教?」爾時梵志叉手合掌佛前長跪白世
T04n0212_p0617b01║尊曰:「唯然世尊!聽為道次得修梵行。」爾時世
T04n0212_p0617b02║尊告諸比丘:「汝等將此梵志,教授威儀度為
T04n0212_p0617b03║比丘。」比丘受教即度為沙門。在閑靜處思惟
T04n0212_p0617b04║挍計修上人法,所以族姓子出家學道,剃除
T04n0212_p0617b05║鬚髮著三法衣,以信堅固於家出家,修無上
T04n0212_p0617b06║梵行,潔身受證以自娛樂,生死已盡梵行已
T04n0212_p0617b07║立所作已辦,更不復受有,如實知之,已得為
T04n0212_p0617b08║道,在無餘境得阿羅漢果。爾時世尊觀察此
T04n0212_p0617b09║義思惟本末,亦使諸比丘速取滅度,為後眾
T04n0212_p0617b10║生現其大明,然熾正法久存於世,重與梵志
T04n0212_p0617b11║而說此偈:「不寐夜長,罷惓道長,愚生死長,
T04n0212_p0617b12║莫知正法。」 非有子恃,  亦非父兄,  為死所迫,  無
T04n0212_p0617b13║親可怙。

T04n0212_p0617b14║昔佛在摩竭國道場甘梨園北石室精舍中。
T04n0212_p0617b15║時,有一男子將從嚴駕隨大導師入海採寶,
T04n0212_p0617b16║餘小賈人以類相從,飲食[飢-几+燕]樂施諸貧窮沙
T04n0212_p0617b17║門婆羅門。以得入海採致珍寶,還至平岸共
T04n0212_p0617b18║相娛樂,飲食歡[飢-几+燕]日日不斷。時,彼一人飲食
T04n0212_p0617b19║麤惡唯服而已,不改常儀,然復多財珍寶
T04n0212_p0617b20║所獲無量。時,大導師語其人曰:「汝今處世饒
T04n0212_p0617b21║財多寶少有比類,何為自困不肯食噉?夫人
T04n0212_p0617b22║處世當行二業:一者廣施,二者自食。」彼人聞
T04n0212_p0617b23║已心不納受,乃更懷恨漸生憂悴,語導師
T04n0212_p0617b24║曰:「吾設食噉,無以濟彼妻婦男女,後遇疾急,
T04n0212_p0617b25║竟不至家,中道無常。」彼大導師說斯偈曰:
T04n0212_p0617b26║「夫人慳貪,  貯聚財產,  念家怨讐,
T04n0212_p0617b27║ 不覺命終。」

T04n0212_p0617b28║爾時世尊以天眼觀清淨無瑕穢,見彼導師
T04n0212_p0617b29║興功採寶中道無常。爾時世尊以此因緣,
T04n0212_p0617c01║觀察此義思惟本末,欲使諸比丘示現滅度,
T04n0212_p0617c02║為後眾生現其大明,然熾正法久久於世。爾
T04n0212_p0617c03║時世尊便說斯偈:
T04n0212_p0617c04║「非有子恃,  亦非父兄,  為死所迫,
T04n0212_p0617c05║ 無親可怙。」

T04n0212_p0617c06║時諸大眾聞佛所說,心開意悟興功立德,拯
T04n0212_p0617c07║濟窮乏持齋修戒,歲三月六未始有闕,四事
T04n0212_p0617c08║供養,衣服、飯食、床座臥具、病瘦醫藥,須衣與
T04n0212_p0617c09║衣須食與食,財寶七珍,金銀珍寶、車馬瑙、
T04n0212_p0617c10║真珠虎珀,有求索者不逆其意,遠來久住經
T04n0212_p0617c11║過人者皆悉供給,華香脂粉亦用給與無所
T04n0212_p0617c12║悋惜。無數大眾厭患生死,除貪著意執信堅
T04n0212_p0617c13║固,出家修道,修增上法無退轉意,各以次第
T04n0212_p0617c14║成阿羅漢道。◎
T04n0212_p0617c15║ ◎千百非一,  族姓男女,  貯聚財產,
T04n0212_p0617c16║ 無不衰喪。

T04n0212_p0617c17║眾生居世馳趣四方,貪求財貨興欲無厭,盛
T04n0212_p0617c18║夏冒焰冬履嚴霜,飢寒勤苦艱難憂慮,萬失
T04n0212_p0617c19║一獲猶用自慶,施心難果意不開悟,既自不
T04n0212_p0617c20║食復不施人,雖饒寶貨與無不異。坐禪之
T04n0212_p0617c21║人裝以七寶,雖目視之意不甘樂,以慳貪故
T04n0212_p0617c22║流轉生死,從今世至後世。爾時世尊以天眼
T04n0212_p0617c23║觀清淨無瑕穢,觀了眾生馳趣四方貪求財貨
T04n0212_p0617c24║不顧後慮,皆為愚惑所見迷誤。世尊以此因
T04n0212_p0617c25║緣尋究本末,為諸比丘導引法味,亦為將來
T04n0212_p0617c26║眾生示現大明,然熾正法久存於世,三世諸
T04n0212_p0617c27║佛盡見將護。爾時世尊於大眾中,而說此偈:
T04n0212_p0617c28║「千百非一,  族姓男女,  貯聚財產,
T04n0212_p0617c29║ 無不衰喪。」

T04n0212_p0618a01║時世坐上數千萬人,聞佛所說,專意聽受,
T04n0212_p0618a02║各隨所念成得果證。
T04n0212_p0618a03║ 常者皆盡,  高者亦墮,  合會有離,
T04n0212_p0618a04║ 生者有死。

T04n0212_p0618a05║昔佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。爾時有異梵
T04n0212_p0618a06║志至世尊所,共相問訊在一面坐。爾時梵志
T04n0212_p0618a07║白世尊曰:「願欲所問,若見聽者乃敢陳啟。」佛
T04n0212_p0618a08║告梵志:「恣汝所問,如來當為敷演其義。」梵志
T04n0212_p0618a09║白佛:「云何世尊!以何因緣,今世眾生轉微轉
T04n0212_p0618a10║薄遂成減損,於人間世不見熾盛?」佛告梵志:
T04n0212_p0618a11║「有三因緣,使眾生類轉微轉薄遂成減損,於
T04n0212_p0618a12║人間世不見熾盛。云何為三?於是梵志!今世
T04n0212_p0618a13║眾生貪欲無道、慳嫉堅固、習邪倒見。時彼眾
T04n0212_p0618a14║生為此三事所見染污,風雨非時災害毒流,
T04n0212_p0618a15║所種穀子各失時節,轉不成熟。若彼眾生所
T04n0212_p0618a16║食之物或生或熟,饒諸疾疹疫氣縱橫,死者
T04n0212_p0618a17║填路不可稱計,是謂梵志最初因緣,使今世
T04n0212_p0618a18║眾生轉微轉薄遂成減損,於人間世不見熾
T04n0212_p0618a19║盛。風雨非時災害縱橫,所種穀子失時不收,
T04n0212_p0618a20║轉不成熟苗亦不生,人民飢饉餓死者眾,是
T04n0212_p0618a21║謂梵志第二因緣,使今世眾生轉微轉薄遂成
T04n0212_p0618a22║減損不見熾盛。復次梵志!如今國王貪欲無
T04n0212_p0618a23║道、慳嫉堅固、習邪倒見,治化失度托境無
T04n0212_p0618a24║厭,越界攻伐共相傷害,刀劍鉾箭共相斫射,
T04n0212_p0618a25║殺者無數不可稱量,是謂梵志由三因緣使
T04n0212_p0618a26║此生類災害橫起,飢饉餓死攻伐無道。」佛說
T04n0212_p0618a27║此已告目連曰:「吾患脊痛還詣靜室,汝今專
T04n0212_p0618a28║意與梵志論,兼與來會永除疑。」對曰:「如是
T04n0212_p0618a29║世尊!」爾時世尊襞欝多羅僧、枕僧伽梨,右脇
T04n0212_p0618b01║倚地,脚脚相累繫念在明。時,大目連:「汝今
T04n0212_p0618b02║諦聽善思念之。」梵志對曰:「願樂欲聞。」目連以
T04n0212_p0618b03║偈告曰:
T04n0212_p0618b04║「今觀此土境,  及諸眾菓樹,
T04n0212_p0618b05║ 山河流泉源,  江海逝不停。
T04n0212_p0618b06║ 昔人瞻固守,  今為斯所在?
T04n0212_p0618b07║ 寧轉尊法輪,  示現天世人,
T04n0212_p0618b08║ 不樂取命終,  竟知趣何方?
T04n0212_p0618b09║ 欲覓昔舊人,  如今不見一。」

T04n0212_p0618b10║廣說如舊文。梵志聞偈心開意解即履道跡,
T04n0212_p0618b11║是故說曰,常者皆盡,高者亦墮,合會有離,生
T04n0212_p0618b12║者有死。此是其義。昔佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤
T04n0212_p0618b13║獨園。爾時有一孤母而喪一子,得此憂惱愁
T04n0212_p0618b14║憒失意恍惚倒錯,譬如狂人意不開悟。出城
T04n0212_p0618b15║至祇洹精舍,轉聞人說佛為大聖天人所宗,
T04n0212_p0618b16║演說經道忘憂除患,無不照鑒無不通達。於
T04n0212_p0618b17║是孤母往至佛所,作禮長跪白世尊言:「素少
T04n0212_p0618b18║子息唯有一息,卒得重病捨我喪亡,母子情
T04n0212_p0618b19║愍不能自勝。唯願世尊!垂神開化釋我憂結。」
T04n0212_p0618b20║佛告孤母:「汝速入城遍行衢巷,有不死家
T04n0212_p0618b21║者求火持還。」孤母聞已歡悟踊躍,入舍衛城
T04n0212_p0618b22║至一街巷,家家告曰:「此中頗有不死者乎?吾
T04n0212_p0618b23║欲須火還活我息。」諸人報曰:「我等曾祖父母
T04n0212_p0618b24║今為所在?汝今荒錯,何須至巷狂有所說?」所
T04n0212_p0618b25║至之家皆言死亡。形神疲惓所求不剋,便還
T04n0212_p0618b26║歸家,抱小小兒至世尊所,頭面禮足白佛言:
T04n0212_p0618b27║「受勅入城家家乞火皆言死喪,是故空還。」佛
T04n0212_p0618b28║告孤母:「夫人處世有四事因緣不可久保。何
T04n0212_p0618b29║謂為四?一者常必無常,二者富貴必貧賤,三
T04n0212_p0618c01║者合會必別離,四者強健必當死。趣死向死
T04n0212_p0618c02║為死所牽,無免此患。」佛告孤母:「汝今何為不
T04n0212_p0618c03║自憂慮?何不廣施持戒修齋?月八日十四日
T04n0212_p0618c04║十五日,任力堪能,給施孤窮、沙門婆羅門、遠
T04n0212_p0618c05║行久住暫停止者,果獲其福不可計量。」孤母
T04n0212_p0618c06║白佛言:「我今愛子入骨徹髓,為彼子故不惜
T04n0212_p0618c07║身命。」爾時世尊欲化彼人令得開悟,即化作
T04n0212_p0618c08║四大火坑圍繞孤母之身,火氣逼身以兒自
T04n0212_p0618c09║障,兒復呼喚不堪火痛。佛語孤母:「汝向自陳
T04n0212_p0618c10║愛子情重入骨徹髓,寧自喪身不使子亡;火
T04n0212_p0618c11║氣逼己酸痛難堪,但當自受?以子障乎?人間
T04n0212_p0618c12║微火蓋不足言,地獄火然痛苦無量。畜生愚
T04n0212_p0618c13║惑懷癡為苦,餓鬼福尠以飢為苦,能自利者
T04n0212_p0618c14║乃得行道修諸善本,分檀布施持戒忍辱,不
T04n0212_p0618c15║生地獄畜生餓鬼受諸苦惱,受天人福漸近
T04n0212_p0618c16║泥洹。」時彼孤母聞佛所說極深之法,還自思
T04n0212_p0618c17║惟,內心懇責,厭患恩愛除去想著,便念世間
T04n0212_p0618c18║不可樂想,思惟分別五盛陰苦,即於佛前諸
T04n0212_p0618c19║塵垢盡,得法眼淨成須陀洹。爾時世尊觀察
T04n0212_p0618c20║此義尋究本末,為後眾生開演法門,便於大
T04n0212_p0618c21║眾而說此偈:
T04n0212_p0618c22║「常者皆盡,  高者亦墮,  合會有離,
T04n0212_p0618c23║ 生者有死。  眾生相剋,  以喪其命,
T04n0212_p0618c24║ 隨行所墮,  自受殃福。」

T04n0212_p0618c25║一切眾生蜎飛蠕動蚑行喘息有形之類,皆
T04n0212_p0618c26║歸磨滅無免死患,隨行所造而受其報,為善
T04n0212_p0618c27║受福惡則禍隨,如影隨形有何可免?以此因
T04n0212_p0618c28║緣故說此偈耳:
T04n0212_p0618c29║「惡行入地獄,  修善則生天,
T04n0212_p0619a01║ 若修善道者,  無漏入泥洹。」

T04n0212_p0619a02║昔佛在羅閱城迦蘭陀竹園所。時,彼城中疫
T04n0212_p0619a03║氣災害毒出縱橫,人民死亡不可稱限。世尊
T04n0212_p0619a04║以天眼觀清淨無瑕穢,諸行惡者死入地獄。
T04n0212_p0619a05║復有比丘厭患生死,觀此四大無可貪慕臭
T04n0212_p0619a06║穢難近,便入無餘泥洹而般泥洹。爾時世尊
T04n0212_p0619a07║觀察此義尋究本末,為後眾生示現大明,亦
T04n0212_p0619a08║使正法久存於世。時,諸大會聞佛所說,皆發
T04n0212_p0619a09║無上正真道意。
T04n0212_p0619a10║ 非空非海中,  非入山石間,
T04n0212_p0619a11║ 無有地方所,  脫止不受死。

T04n0212_p0619a12║昔者佛在王舍城迦蘭陀竹園所。時,有梵志
T04n0212_p0619a13║兄弟四人,各得五通,自知命促近在不遠,却
T04n0212_p0619a14║後七日皆當命終,思共議言:「我等弟兄五通
T04n0212_p0619a15║通達,以己神力翻覆天地,現身極大手捫
T04n0212_p0619a16║日月,移山住流無所不辦,寧當不能避此難
T04n0212_p0619a17║耶?」第一兄曰:「吾入大海,上下平等正處中
T04n0212_p0619a18║間,無常殺鬼安知我處?」第二弟言:「吾入須彌
T04n0212_p0619a19║山腹中間,還合其表使無際現,無常殺鬼焉
T04n0212_p0619a20║知我處?」第三弟言:「吾處虛空隱形無跡,無
T04n0212_p0619a21║常殺鬼安知我處?」第四弟言:「吾當隱大市之
T04n0212_p0619a22║中,眾人猥閙各不相識,無常殺鬼趣得一人,
T04n0212_p0619a23║何必取吾四人?」議訖相將辭王:「吾等計算餘
T04n0212_p0619a24║命七日,各欲逃走欲求多福。」王尋告曰:「善進
T04n0212_p0619a25║其德。」於是別去各適所至,七日期滿各從其
T04n0212_p0619a26║處而皆命終,處虛空者猶如熟菓自然凋落。
T04n0212_p0619a27║市守白王:「有一梵志卒死市中。」王乃醒悟:「禍
T04n0212_p0619a28║災無常,四人避對一人已死,其餘三人豈得
T04n0212_p0619a29║免乎?」爾時世尊以天眼觀清淨無瑕穢,知四
T04n0212_p0619b01║梵志避無常對,各求度世免濟其難,然其宿
T04n0212_p0619b02║命終不可避。以此因緣尋究本末,欲使後世
T04n0212_p0619b03║人示其大明,亦使正法久存於世。爾時世尊
T04n0212_p0619b04║在大眾中,而說此偈:
T04n0212_p0619b05║「非空非海中,  非入山石間,
T04n0212_p0619b06║ 無有地方所,  脫止不受死。」

T04n0212_p0619b07║ 老見苦痛,  死則意去,  樂家縛獄,
T04n0212_p0619b08║ 貪世不斷。

T04n0212_p0619b09║昔佛在羅閱城迦蘭陀竹園所。眾多比丘白
T04n0212_p0619b10║世尊曰:「如來今日為觀何義,有何事故,捨
T04n0212_p0619b11║人間之樂極世之美,出家學道?」爾時世尊
T04n0212_p0619b12║與諸比丘廣演生經:「汝等諦聽善思念之,戢
T04n0212_p0619b13║在心懷,吾今當說極微之法。」諸比丘對曰:
T04n0212_p0619b14║「願樂欲聞。」世尊告曰:「爾時世尊廣與比丘
T04n0212_p0619b15║生經。比丘當知!父真淨王敕諸臣佐:『吾今欲
T04n0212_p0619b16║出後園觀看,可速嚴駕羽寶之車。』爾時臣佐
T04n0212_p0619b17║至真淨王所而白王曰:『太子欲出後園觀看,
T04n0212_p0619b18║被敕嚴駕羽寶之車。』時王聞此語,歡喜踊
T04n0212_p0619b19║躍不能自勝,告臣佐曰:『聽太子出後園遊
T04n0212_p0619b20║觀,或能除去愁憂亂想。』即自嚴駕集諸大眾三
T04n0212_p0619b21║十部軍,左右翼從各十五部,除前後導引。比
T04n0212_p0619b22║丘!我時至後園觀看,見有老人形衰色變皮
T04n0212_p0619b23║緩面皺,拄杖呻吟氣力枯竭,時問御者:『斯是
T04n0212_p0619b24║何人,形衰色變乃至於斯?』御者報曰:『此是老
T04n0212_p0619b25║人。』太子問曰:『何謂為老?』御者報曰:『所謂老者
T04n0212_p0619b26║形衰年邁伺命旦夕,衰耗之法漸近死趣,故
T04n0212_p0619b27║謂為老。』我時,比丘!復問御者:『吾亦當復有此
T04n0212_p0619b28║衰耶?』御者報曰:『尊及人天皆有斯患,無免此
T04n0212_p0619b29║者。』時我自念:『夫人受形皆有此患,貧賤富貴
T04n0212_p0619c01║皆當有此。』便敕御者迴車歸宮,清淨自守思
T04n0212_p0619c02║惟道德。時,真淨王問彼御者:『太子出遊觀看,
T04n0212_p0619c03║得遂意乎?』御者曰:『太子出遊竟不至園。』王問
T04n0212_p0619c04║御者曰:『以何因緣不至園觀?』御者報王:『太子
T04n0212_p0619c05║出遊中道見老人,形變色衰憂思而還。』時真
T04n0212_p0619c06║淨王得此罔然。『吾先有教令敕語街巷,諸
T04n0212_p0619c07║有不淨穢污之物,無令太子見之,若有犯者
T04n0212_p0619c08║左右前後當誅七家。』即遣尋究而無有家。所
T04n0212_p0619c09║以然者,以其淨居天所化故也。時我,比丘!復
T04n0212_p0619c10║作是念:『衰老年邁非適今有,人出胞胎已受
T04n0212_p0619c11║形分則有衰老,及出胞胎行步出入、年盛力
T04n0212_p0619c12║壯漸微轉衰,皆有此患。』時我,比丘!竊說偈曰:
T04n0212_p0619c13║「『少時意盛壯,  為老所見逼,
T04n0212_p0619c14║  形衰極枯槁,  氣竭憑杖行。』

T04n0212_p0619c15║「是時,比丘!吾出遊觀先見此變,如是數日,復
T04n0212_p0619c16║告御者:『吾欲出遊至後園觀,速疾嚴駕羽
T04n0212_p0619c17║寶之車。』
T04n0212_p0619c18║「爾時御者至真淨王所而白王曰:『太子欲出
T04n0212_p0619c19║後園觀看,被敕嚴駕羽寶之車。』王聞此語
T04n0212_p0619c20║歡喜踊躍不能自勝,告臣佐曰:『聽太子出後
T04n0212_p0619c21║園遊觀,或能除去愁憂亂想。』即自嚴駕集
T04n0212_p0619c22║諸大眾三十部軍,左右翼從各十五部,除前
T04n0212_p0619c23║後導引。比丘!我時至後園觀看,見有病人,
T04n0212_p0619c24║形羸吐逆臥大小便,蠅噆其身,水腹痿黃
T04n0212_p0619c25║臭穢難近。時我,比丘!問彼御者:『斯是何人?』御
T04n0212_p0619c26║者對曰:『病人也。』『何謂為病?』對曰:『病者風差火
T04n0212_p0619c27║錯心無歡樂,眾疹集聚食則不消,惡聞人聲,
T04n0212_p0619c28║故謂為病。』時我問彼御者:『吾亦當復有此患
T04n0212_p0619c29║耶?』御者報曰:『尊及人天亦有此病。』時我,比
T04n0212_p0620a01║丘!復作是念:『夫人受形不免此患,至園觀看
T04n0212_p0620a02║竟何求乎?』即敕御者迴車歸宮,靜寂自修欲
T04n0212_p0620a03║除其患。時真淨王問彼御者:『太子出遊後園觀
T04n0212_p0620a04║看,為適意乎?』御者報曰:『太子出遊竟不至園。』
T04n0212_p0620a05║王問御者:『以何因緣不至園觀?』御者報王:『太
T04n0212_p0620a06║子出遊中道見病人,形羸吐逆臥大小便,蠅
T04n0212_p0620a07║噆其身,水腹痿黃臭穢難近。』時真淨王得
T04n0212_p0620a08║此罔然。『吾先有教敕語街巷,諸有不淨穢污
T04n0212_p0620a09║之物,無令太子見之,若有犯者左右前後當
T04n0212_p0620a10║誅七家。』即遣尋究,無有家聚。所以然者,以其
T04n0212_p0620a11║淨居天所化故。時我,比丘!復作是念:『夫人
T04n0212_p0620a12║受形必有此病,古來有是非適今也。』時,真淨
T04n0212_p0620a13║王便作是念:『太子出遊所見瑞應,憂念世間
T04n0212_p0620a14║必不樂家,會當出學。吾今當倍彼直衛侍護
T04n0212_p0620a15║左側娛樂其志。』 「復經數日敕告御者:『吾欲出
T04n0212_p0620a16║遊觀看,速疾嚴駕羽寶之車。』王聞此語歡喜
T04n0212_p0620a17║踊躍不能自勝,告臣佐曰:『聽太子出後園遊
T04n0212_p0620a18║觀,或能除去愁憂亂想。』即自嚴駕集諸大眾三
T04n0212_p0620a19║十部軍,左右翼從各十五部,除前後導引。我
T04n0212_p0620a20║時,比丘!至後園看見有死人,宗族五親散髮
T04n0212_p0620a21║蓬頭,呼天扣地圍繞啼哭。時我,比丘!問彼
T04n0212_p0620a22║御者:『斯是何人?宗族五親散髮蓬頭,呼天扣
T04n0212_p0620a23║地圍繞啼哭。』御者報曰:『死人也。』問曰:『何謂
T04n0212_p0620a24║為死?』御者報曰:『所謂死人,恩愛已離無復命
T04n0212_p0620a25║根,妻子五親永與世別,風逝火滅水消土散
T04n0212_p0620a26║各在異處,魂神遷轉形如乾木無所覺知,故
T04n0212_p0620a27║曰死也。』我時,比丘!問彼御者:『吾亦當復有此
T04n0212_p0620a28║死耶?』御者報曰:『尊及人天皆有此患無有免
T04n0212_p0620a29║者。』時我,比丘!復作是念:『夫人處世不免此患,
T04n0212_p0620b01║至後園觀竟何求乎?』即敕御者迴車歸宮,靜
T04n0212_p0620b02║寂自修欲除其患。時,真淨王問彼御者曰:『太
T04n0212_p0620b03║子出遊後園觀看為何?適意乎?』御者報曰:『太
T04n0212_p0620b04║子出遊竟不至園,中道見死人於是便還。』時
T04n0212_p0620b05║真淨王得此罔然。『吾先有教令敕語街巷,諸
T04n0212_p0620b06║有不淨穢污之物,無令太子見之,若有犯者
T04n0212_p0620b07║左右前後當誅七家。』即遣尋究而無有家。所以
T04n0212_p0620b08║然者,以其淨居天所化故也。時我,比丘!便作
T04n0212_p0620b09║是念:『咄老病死無免之者!吾今宜可善求巧
T04n0212_p0620b10║便出家學道。』時我,比丘!即捨家出,求無上道成
T04n0212_p0620b11║最正覺,今得為佛度脫萬民,皆由積行無戀
T04n0212_p0620b12║慕心,今我出現自致正覺。」爾時世尊觀察此
T04n0212_p0620b13║義尋究本末,為將來眾生示現大明,亦使正
T04n0212_p0620b14║法久存於世,爾時世尊在大眾中而說此偈:
T04n0212_p0620b15║「老者苦痛,  死則意去,  樂家縛獄,
T04n0212_p0620b16║ 貪世不斷。」

T04n0212_p0620b17║諸比丘,聞佛所說踊躍歡喜,即從坐起,禮
T04n0212_p0620b18║佛而去。
T04n0212_p0620b19║ 老則形變,  喻如故車,  法能除苦,
T04n0212_p0620b20║ 宜以力學。

T04n0212_p0620b21║昔佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。爾時眾多比
T04n0212_p0620b22║丘白世尊曰:「如來今日年已耆老,肌膚舒緩
T04n0212_p0620b23║不與常同。」佛告比丘:「如是如是,如汝所言,我
T04n0212_p0620b24║年已老。設當持戒梵行比丘,以如來身安處
T04n0212_p0620b25║高床周行四海,雖與恭敬以報重恩。然我本
T04n0212_p0620b26║修無憍慢心自證成佛,吾不說是。老則形變
T04n0212_p0620b27║喻如故車。所謂故車者。王家所造,或以金銀
T04n0212_p0620b28║刻鏤作車,或水精琉璃雜廁其間,經年積歲
T04n0212_p0620b29║猶有朽敗,況四大身筋纏血澆,眾事合集乃
T04n0212_p0620c01║成此形?父母所造。十月懷抱推溫去濕,隨時
T04n0212_p0620c02║瞻視乃名為人。唯有明智能除此苦,以法自
T04n0212_p0620c03║將訓誨未悟,加以權化應適無方,宜以力
T04n0212_p0620c04║學,稱佛世尊誘導之言,以無諭諂蠲除妄
T04n0212_p0620c05║見,不犯身口意行,以第一義充飽一切,將育
T04n0212_p0620c06║眾生,行不漏失無懼畏者,謂佛世尊如來弟
T04n0212_p0620c07║子,教訓弟子以禁防非。」爾時世尊知彼內心
T04n0212_p0620c08║有所趣向,尋究本末,亦與後世眾生示現大
T04n0212_p0620c09║明,使正法久存於世,在大眾中便說此偈:
T04n0212_p0620c10║「老則形變,  喻如故車,  法能除苦,
T04n0212_p0620c11║ 宜以力學。」

T04n0212_p0620c12║諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜作禮而去。
T04n0212_p0620c13║ 咄嗟老至,  色變作耄,  少時如意,
T04n0212_p0620c14║ 老見蹈藉。

T04n0212_p0620c15║昔佛在羅閱城迦蘭陀竹園所。爾時尊者阿
T04n0212_p0620c16║難著衣正服,偏露右臂長跪叉手白佛言:「世
T04n0212_p0620c17║尊!今觀如來形變色微,諸根舒緩形狀轉朽,
T04n0212_p0620c18║眼根耳鼻舌身諸根不與常同。」佛告阿難:「如
T04n0212_p0620c19║是如是,如汝所言。所謂老者,能使極妙殊特
T04n0212_p0620c20║之容變為異色,諸根具滿能使缺漏,與病結
T04n0212_p0620c21║伴與死並流;色力豪貴財富盈溢能使闕減,
T04n0212_p0620c22║身體平正內理充滿,能使僂步憑杖而行;髮
T04n0212_p0620c23║如紺青亦如蜜王猶如純黑,能使變白髮落
T04n0212_p0620c24║不住;眼如牛眴白黑分明,能使目中生膚睆
T04n0212_p0620c25║瞖;額如油光晃昱照曜,能使面皺狀如皮燋;
T04n0212_p0620c26║齒如白珂亦如白雪新[穀-禾+牛]牛乳,如烏賊魚
T04n0212_p0620c27║絕白胞滿,上下齊平觀無厭足,能使凋落虫
T04n0212_p0620c28║齲疼痛。取要言之,於揵沓和、阿須倫、迦留羅、
T04n0212_p0620c29║甄陀羅、摩休勒、人及非人,能使衰耗無少壯
T04n0212_p0621a01║心,痛中之苦莫甚於老。是故說曰,咄嗟老至,
T04n0212_p0621a02║色變作耄,少時如意,老見蹈藉。如來世尊以
T04n0212_p0621a03║三十二相而自纏絡,八十種好莊嚴其身,圓
T04n0212_p0621a04║光七尺無冥不照,八種音聲遠震十方,猶為
T04n0212_p0621a05║老病所見蹈藉,況處凡夫得免此乎?」以此因
T04n0212_p0621a06║緣尋究本末,為後眾生示現大明,亦使正法
T04n0212_p0621a07║久存於世,於大眾中故說斯偈。
T04n0212_p0621a08║◎出曜經卷第二
【經文資訊】大正藏第 04 冊 No. 0212 出曜經
【版本記錄】CBETA 電子佛典 2016.06,完成日期:2016/06/15
【編輯說明】本資料庫由中華電子佛典協會(CBETA)依大正藏所編輯
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